Troubleshooting is the process of diagnosing the source of problem. It is used to fix problems with hardware and software.


Utilities and tools

1. Quick fixes
Microsoft has developed the Fix It Center tool, which includes all of the automated fixes for various Windows problems it has released over the last few years. Download and install it from , then launch the tool from its desktop shortcut.

A list of available trouble-shooters for your version of Windows will be listed; if one describes the problem you're having then click the Run button next to it and see if it can resolve your problem.
2. Action Center
Click the flag icon in the Taskbar's notification area to access the Action Center. Here you can get an at-a-glance look at problems, plus launch a series of trouble-shooters to help quickly fix the problems that plague you, without getting your hands dirty.

  • Windows defender

Windows Defender is your first line of defence against spyware and other unwanted software. And in Windows 7, it's easier to use, with simpler notifications, more scanning options, and less impact on your computer's performance.

  • Windows Firewall

Windows Firewall can help protect your PC from hackers and malicious software. In Windows 7, it is still powerful—but we have made it more flexible and easier to use.

3. C cleaner
Ccleaner is a freeware system optimization, privacy and cleaning tool. It removes unused files from your system allowing Windows to run faster and freeing up valuable hard disk space. It also cleans traces of your online activities such as your Internet history. Additionally it contains a fully featured registry cleaner. You can download it from the following link .
Check for solutions to problems
When some hardware or software problems occur—for example, if a program stops working or stops responding—Windows creates a problem report so you can check for a solution. You can check for solutions at any time, or you can set Windows to check for them automatically.
To check for solutions to problems at any time

  • Open Action Center by clicking the Start button, clicking Control Panel, and then, under System and Security, clicking Review your computer's status.
  • Click Maintenance.
  • Under Check for solutions to problem reports, click Check for solutions. Windows will notify you if there are any solutions to problems available for your computer.

Some problems and their solution

1. CD/DVD drive problems
Many disc problems can be traced to third-party disc-burning software. If you've recently installed a new program, try removing it and see if the issue is resolved. Conversely, if you've recently removed a program, check the program's website to see if a clean-up tool might be able to help.
For example, the Nero General Clean Tool might solve things. If all else fails, just run the Microsoft Fix It Center tool, select "Playing and burning cds, DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs" and click Run. This should resolve most outstanding burning issues.
2. Windows Update won't install
If a single update won't install or keeps appearing as an update, make a note of its KB number. Go to and type the KB number into the Search box to locate the standalone installer.
Save this to your hard drive, reboot into Safe Mode and attempt to install the update from there. In most cases the update will now install successfully and you'll not be prompted for it again.
3. System Restore problems
Restore points are cumulative in reverse – each new one only saves what's changed – so old points rely on newer ones to work; if one corrupts then all older ones are lost. That means the older a Restore point, the less reliable it is, so avoid using anything but the most recent one.

Open System Restore by clicking the Start button. In the search box, type System Restore, and then, in the list of results, click System Restore.  If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
4. No sound in Windows
Before running the Microsoft Fix It Center tool (see tip three), open the "Sound" or "Sounds and Audio Devices" Control Panel.
Select the Playback or Audio tab, and verify the device is set to be the default; if not, select it from the list to fix the problem.
5. Program compatibility problems
If you have issues with a program check its website or Google the program's name, version number and your version of Windows to see if there are any issues with it.
Avoid installing system software not listed as compatible with your version of Windows, otherwise try installing it as normal; if it fails, Windows may offer to apply compatibility settings to it – see if these work.
If the program installs but won't run, right-click its program shortcut and choose Properties > Compatibility Settings. Select your old version of Windows from the list and click OK.
In Windows you can also click "Help me choose the settings" to gain access to the Program Compatibility Trouble-shooter.
6. How to fix a computer that won’t boot – Instructions

  • STEP 1: Turn your computer on, booting from either your Windows 7 Installation DVD or Windows 7 System Recovery Disc.  Remember, you may need to change the boot order inside your BIOS to have the DVD drive boot first.
  • STEP 2: After the installation or recovery disc loads, if prompted, select your language settings and then continue.  If you are using the installation DVD, when prompted by the following screen select Repair your computer.
  • STEP 3: The computer will take a moment now to scan itself for any Windows installations, after which you will likely be given a choice to select which installation you wish to repair.  Select the appropriate Windows installation from the list and then continue. If by chance a problem is detected in one of your Windows installations at this initial stage, the system may also ask you if it can try to repair the problem automatically. It is up to you if you wish to let the system try to repair itself, but otherwise just select No.
  • STEP 4: Once you have reached the System Recovery Options screen, as shown below, you will be faced with a list of choices that can aid you in repairing a damaged Windows 7 operating system.  If you wish to try the Start-up Repair option first, it is often successful in automatically fixing many different start up issues, but in this article we will be using the Command Prompt option to resolve our problems manually. So, click Command Prompt to continue.
  • STEP5: Now sitting at the command prompt, enter the following command and then press enter:

Bootrec.exe /fixmbr
If successful, you should be greeted with the message the operation completed successfully.  That’s it!  Your Master Boot Record has been repaired.
While the above command does fix the MBR, and sometimes that is enough, there still might be an error with the system partition’s boot sector and Boot Configuration Data (BCD). This might occur if you have tried to install another operating system alongside Windows 7, such as Windows XP.  To write a new boot sector, try the following command:
Bootrec.exe /fixboot
If you are still faced with your Windows 7 installation not being detected during start up, or if you wish to include more than one operating system choice to your system’s boot list, you can try the following command to rebuild your BCD:
   Bootrec.exe /rebuildbcd
The above command will scan all your disks for other operating systems compatible with Windows 7 and allow you to add them to your system’s boot list. If this fails, you may need to back up the old BCD folder* and create a new one in its place with the following commands:
        Bcdedit /export C:\BCD_Backup
        Cd boot
        Attrib bcd -s -h -r
        Ren c:\boot\bcd bcd.old
        Bootrec /rebuildbcd

Some users also find simply deleting the boot folder and retrying the above steps effective at resolving boot issues, but it is not recommended.

7. Desktop Freezing Problem
Follow some basic optimization rules, to avoid:
Reduce the number of programs running the background
Use Windows Experience Index and follow the guidelines
Use some registry scanner to fix the problems in registry
Defragment your hard disk regularly.
Delete old and unused files using disk clean up.
Free maximum possible space in RAM and hard drive
Most of the time; your desktop freezes a lot due to unnecessary services running in the background. If you do not need some services, follow the given process and stop them.
Click Start, type Services. Msc and then press ENTER.
Right click on a particular service, and select Stop.
Similarly, you can either uninstall unwanted programs or add up extra memory and space, to avoid the freezing problem.
8. Virus
Delete temporary files
This step isn't critical, but it can help. Deleting temp files will speed up virus scanning, free disk space and may even delete malware. Select Start, All Programs (or just Programs), Accessories, System Tools, Disk Clean-up. And choose to delete temporary files.
Open window defender, keep the default scan option ('Perform quick scan') selected and click the Scan button.
Though it offers a full-scan option, it recommends that you perform the quick scan first, as that scan usually finds all of the infections anyway. Depending on your computer, the quick scan can take anywhere from 5 to 20 minutes, whereas the full scan might take 30 to 60 minutes or more. While it is scanning, you can see how many files or objects the software has already scanned, and how many of those files it has identified either as being malware or as being infected by malware. When it is completed it will show you a result of scanning, then remove or quarantine the malware.

9. Bios update
A computer's Basic Input-Output System (BIOS) is embedded software on a motherboard. It is the first software your PC loads so that it can use things like CD drives, mice, and keyboards practically from the moment you turn it on. This guide will help you flash (update) your BIOS by taking the right precautions and walking you through each step. Not all computers will have the same BIOS manufacturer, let alone the same exact process, but they all share similar steps and precautions.

  • Find your current BIOS version. You'll want this information when you visit the manufacturer's website.

Open the System Information app in Windows. Enter msinfo32 into the search bar, and then click System Summary.
Your BIOS version will be displayed under your computer's processor speed. Write down the version number and date (if it appears).

  • Determine your system's origins. This is an important first step to determine where to locate and download the correct BIOS update version.

Did you purchase the computer as a bundled, pre-built system, or was it assembled from purchased components? If it's a bundled system—for example, a Dell—check their website; if the computer was custom assembled, visit the website of the motherboard manufacturer. Look for something like "Drivers and Downloads."
Be sure to download the BIOS update for the model you own. If the updater is not written well, it could write over your BIOS with another model's BIOS, and hello, paperweight!
Also be sure to download any Read Me files and other documentation—and then read it! This is not the time to just wing it. There may be important precautions that you should know before updating, and ignoring those could ruin your whole day.

  • Backup your existing BIOS first! If using BIOS update software executed from Windows or another operating system, backup the existing BIOS image first. Most BIOS updater have this functionality built-in (e.g., "Save" or "Backup"), and will advise you to perform a backup first. Check your manufacturer's website for information on their recommended way to back up the BIOS.
  • Prepare your system. The biggest danger with flashing BIOS comes in the event of power loss during the procedure. You may not be able to control the power company, but you can control how it affects you.

If you are updating a desktop, first make sure the battery is fully charged, and then plug into the wall power so you are not running off the battery. In the event of power failure, your battery will keep things running.
If you are updating a desktop computer, its best if you are plugged into an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Like the desktop's battery, the UPS will keep everything running, while others are running around in the dark.

  • Perform the update. Run the downloaded installer or .exe file for the BIOS updating software.

If the software prompts you for a floppy, use a formatted 1.44MB 3.5" floppy disk. Insert it into the drive and restart the system to boot from it. Some floppy images contain an "autoexec.bat" file to automatically run the BIOS update. Others will just have the update software, the updated BIOS image, and possibly a 'readme' text file containing directions. If there are no directions, but there are at least two files (i.e.: "A06_123.bin" and "awflash.exe"), follow this example: Enter a command such as "awflash A06_123.bin" and press enter. This will execute the update software and specify the A06_123.bin file to flash the BIOS.
Compare the two versions. Most BIOS update software will read the existing BIOS image and determine its version, then compare this to the downloaded BIOS image. If the system's existing BIOS version is older, perform the update. The user interface of BIOS software may vary greatly, yet typically menu buttons or selections such as "Write", "Update", or "Confirm" will perform the BIOS update.

  • Restart the computer. After the update is completed, many update programs will automatically restart the computer. Some updaters will request your permission to do so while others will warn about this before starting the update. A few will prompt you to power cycle the system yourself. To perform the power cycling procedure manually:

Completely power down the PC by either pressing the power button or initiating the power off sequence from the operating system.
Flip the master power switch on the back of your PC to the off position, if applicable.
Wait a minute.
Flip the master power switch back into the on position, if applicable.
Power up the PC.

  • Clear existing BIOS settings if recommended. This is not always necessary, depending on what features have changed between the existing version and the updated version. To do so:

When the PC is powering up, immediately initiate execution of the BIOS utility. For most systems, this is done by pressing the Delete key on the keyboard within the first 2 to 10 seconds of turning the computer. Some systems might use different keys such as F2, F10, CTRL, Enter, etc.
If you don't know the keystroke sequence for entering the BIOS utility, watch the monitor to see if the computer displays it.
To clear the BIOS settings, look for an option to "Restore Defaults" or "Load Fail-Safe Defaults". This may be on the main page of the BIOS utility or on the last page of a tabbed menu. Use the arrow keys to navigate, and follow the on-screen instructions. When complete, save the settings and exit the BIOS utility.

  • Configure the BIOS. If you know the settings you want, change them now. If you have never changed BIOS settings before, it is not required to do so. Most pcs will function just fine using the default BIOS settings.

10. Screen is blank.
The desktop turns on, power LED lights up, cooling fan works but nothing appears on the screen. The screen is completely black and blank. There is no image on the screen at all.
Possible problem:
– This can be memory failure. It’s possible one of the memory modules failed. In this case you can try reseating memory modules to make sure they are making good contact with the slot. You can try removing memory modules one by one and test the desktop with only one module installed. You can try replacing memory modules.
– If reseating/replacing memory doesn’t help, try removing the hard drive, DVD drive, modem, wireless card, keyboard, etc… In other words, disassemble the desktop to bare minimum and test again. If the desktop still doesn’t turn on, most likely you have failed motherboard or processor.

11. Desktop turns on and off repeatedly.
The desktop turn on without showing any image on the screen. After a few seconds it turns off by itself. Then it turns on and off again.
Possible problem:
Most likely this is motherboard failure. You can try reseating/replacing memory as I described in the Problem 2. If it doesn’t help, probably the motherboard failed.

12. Desktop makes noise while running.
The desktop turns on and everything works fine, except it makes some constant weird grinding or rattling noise.
Possible problem:
In most cases this noise is coming from the cooling fan or hard drive. Take a closer look at the cooling fan.
If the fan doesn’t spin but the desktop makes noise, probably it’s coming from the hard drive. Back up all personal data as soon as possible and replace the hard drive. Also, you can remove the hard drive and stat the desktop. If the desktop still makes noise, most likely its bad fan.

13. Desktop shuts down or freezes.
The desktop runs properly but after a while it freezes or shuts down without any warning. When it happens, the bottom feels hot. Also, the cooling fan runs louder than usual.
Possible problem:
Most likely this is heat related issue. It happens because the fan heat sink is clogged with dust and the processor not cooling down properly. Cleaning the fan and heat sink from dust should fix it.

14. Screen light fails.
The desktop starts properly but after a while the screen light turns off. The image still appears on the screen but it’s very dark.
In some cases the screen light never starts and all you can see is a very faint image.
Possible problem:
Most likely it’s either failed screen inverter or backlight lamp (CCFL) failure.  When either one fail, the backlight stops working.
In order to troubleshoot this, you’ll need some spare parts: either new working inverter or known good backlight lamp.

15. Strange or garbled image on the screen.
The desktop turns on properly but has a distorted or garbled image on the screen.
Possible problem:
– The graphics card failed. First of all, test your desktop with an external monitor or TV. If you see the same garbled image on the external screen, most likely the graphics card failed.
– If the problem appears only on the desktop screen, this can be related to one of the following: poor connection between the video cable and motherboard or screen. Also can be failed video cable or screen.

16. Some keyboard keys stopped working.
Some keyboard keys do not work at all or type wrong characters.
Possible problem:
Most likely the keyboard failed and they are not repairable. You can replace it.

17. Keyboard has missing or broken keys.
A key got separated from the desktop keyboard.
Problem solution:
If a key separated from the keyboard, it’s still possible to fix it.
If you have many keys missing, probably it makes sense to replace the whole keyboard.

18. Repetitive beep sound on start-up.
You turn on the desktop but there is no video on the screen. Instead, it starts making repetitive beeping sound. In some cases you can “fix” the problem temporarily if you press on the keyboard keys.
Problem solution:
Most likely you have stuck keys. In this case you’ll have to replace the keyboard.

We have also uploaded a video on our youtube channel that will make you more comfortable with different utilities and tools:


  • Kunal Saini (2014053)
  • Aashish Kumar(2014002)
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License